Glossary

Accessorial service  A service in addition to usual liner service, normally with an added cost. Such kind of services include packing, loading, storage, etc.
Accrual An accounting concept. It is a gradual increase by addition over a period of time and is a way of recognising that an expense (or revenue) and the related liability (or asset) can increase over time and not as signalled by an explicit cash transaction.
Ad Valorem According to value.
Ad Valorem Duty A customs duty which is a percentage made upon the value of goods.
Ad Valorem Freight Bill of lading freight charged on goods of very high value at so much percent on the declared value of the goods.
Advice of Shipment A notice sent to a local or foreign buyer advising that shipment has gone forward and containing details of packing, routing, etc. A copy of the invoice is usually enclosed and sometimes, if desired, a copy of the bill of lading.
Advising bank The bank which advises the seller that a letter of credit has been opened in his favour by the buyer, however, the advising bank does not necessarily guarantee payment.
Agent (Agt.) A person authorized to transact business for and in the name of another person or company.
Air Freight Forwarder A type of freight forwarder who specializes in air cargo.
Air waybill The air waybill is the forwarding agreement or carrying agreement between shipper and air carrier and is obtained from the airline used to ship the goods in question. Air waybills are issued only in nonnegotiable form.
All inclusive rate (AI) Freight rate that is inclusive of all charges.
Apparent Good Order When freight appears to be free of damage so far as a general survey can determine.
Arbitration A procedure under which a neutral third party hears both the union’s and the employer’s side in a dispute and issues an award that is binding upon both; also, the final step of a grievance process.
Arrival notice Advice that carrier sends to consignee advising of goods coming forward for delivery. Pertinent information such as BL number, container number and total charges due from consignee, etc are included and sent to consignee prior to vessel arrival. This is done gratuitously by carrier to ensure smooth delivery but there is no obligation by carrier to do so and the responsibility to monitor transit and present himself to take timely delivery still rest with the consignee.
Awkward cargo Cargo of irregular size that either be containerised (packed in container) or uncontainerised (without equipment associated with) in the transport. They require prior approval on case by case basis before confirmation of booking.
B/L Master A document provided by the shipper after handing over the cargo to the carrier, tells the carrier how the B/L should be raised. Also known as B/L instruction or shipping instruction.
Bank guarantee Guarantee issued by a bank to a carrier to release cargo in lieu of original bill of lading.
Basic freight Ocean freight excludes all charges.
Bill of lading (B/L) Official legal document representing ownership of cargo; negotiable document to receive cargo; contract for cargo between shipper and carrier.
Bill of lading Ton See check "Revenue Ton" 
Blocking or bracing Wood or metal supports to keep shipments in place in or on railcars.
Bona fide In good faith.
Bond Shipments moving under a country Customs bonds.
Bonded indemnity A certificate filed with a carrier, relieving it from liability to which it would otherwise be subject.
Bonded warehouse A warehouse bonded by customs authorities for storage of bonded goods prior to cargo being cleared.
Booking Arrangements with a carrier, often a steamship or airline, for the acceptance and carriage of passengers or freight.
Booking number A reference number for booking registered. It should be unique without duplication in three years period.
Booking status
The status of booking in process from time of registration to the final stage of firm acceptance or rejection. It is composed of following status:
  • Cancelled: rejected or voided due to no show;
  • Confirmed: acknowledged with firm acceptance;
  • Confirmed subject to space availability: acknowledged acceptance of booking subject to confirmation in agreed time frame;
  • Pending: acknowledged receipt of booking yet subject to approval for acceptance.
Box Common term for an ocean going freight container.
Break-bulk cargo Goods shipped loose in the vessel’s hold and not in a container.
Breakbulk (BB) A term used to describe cargo which cannot be containerised due to its size and/or nature.
British Thermal Unit (BTU) The amount of heat required to produce a temperature change of one degree Fahrenheit in one pound of water.
Broker (a) A person who arranges for transportation of loads, usually large operations, for a percentage of the revenue from the load; (b) In Canada, an owner-operator.
Bulk carriers A vessel carrying dry, liquid, grain, not packaged, bundled or bottled cargo, and is loaded without marks & number or count.
Bulk freight Not in packages or containers; shipped loose in the hold of a ship. Grain, coal and sulfur are usually bulk freight.
Bulk-freight container Refers to a container with a discharge batch in the front wall; allows bulk commodities to be grasped by loading hatches.
Bunker surcharge (BAF, BSC) Bunker Adjustment factor (BAF), or Bunker Surcharge (BSC) are surcharges assessed by carrier to freight rates to reflect current cost of bunker.
Bunkers Heavy oil used as fuel for ocean vessel.
C-TPAT/CTPAT

Customs Trade Partnership Against Terrorism.

US legislative body enforcing internal physical security conciousness& awareness within carriers.

C.A.F. Currency Adjustment Factor. Percentage by which the rate is either increased or decreased in response to fluctating exchange rates.
C.B.M. (C.M.) Cubic meter. A measure of cargo volume
C.F. (Cu. Ft.) Cubic feet.
C.F.S. See Container Freight Station.
C.I. Cost and insurance. A price that includes the cost of the goods, the marine insurance and all transportation charges except the ocean freight to the named point of destination.
C.M.
  • Cubic Meter (capital letters).
  • Correction Memo.
C.O.D. Collect (cash) on Delivery; Carried on Docket (pricing); Change of Destination.
CFR

Cost and Freight (one of 11 Incoterms)

"Cost and Freight" means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship's rail in the port of shipment.

CFS/CFS A kind of cargo movement by container. Delivered loose at origin point with vanning by carrier, devanned by carrier at destination, and picked up loose at destination.
CFS/CY A kind of cargo movement by container. Loose cargo received at origin point, loaded in a container by carrier, then delivered intact at destination.
CIF "Cost and Freight" means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ships's rail in the port of shipment. (one of 11 Incoterms)
CIP "Carriage and Insurance paid to..."means that the seller delivers the goods to the carrier nominated by him, but the seller must in addition pay the cost of carriage necessary to bring the goods to the named destination. This means that the buyer bears all risks and any additional costs occurring after the goods have been so delivered. However, in CIP the seller also has to procure insurance against the buyer's risk of loss of or damage to the goods during the carriage. (one of 11 Incoterms)
CPT "Carriage paid to ..." means that the seller delivers the goods to the carrier nominated by him bsut the seller must in addition pay the cost of carriage necessary to bring the goods to the named destination. This means that the buyer bears risks and any costs occurring after the goods have been so delivered. (one of 11 Incoterms)
CSC Container Service Charge or European THC
CY Container Yard. Point at which carrier hands over to or receive laden containers from merchant haulier. Commonly where mode of transport changes e.g. a sea port, feeder terminal, barge terminal or rail ramp.
CY/CFS Cargo loaded in a full container by a shipper at origin, delivered to pier facility at destination, and then devanned by carrier for loose pick up.
CY/CY Cargo loaded by shipper in a full container at origin and delivered to carrier's terminal at destination for pick up intact by consignee.
Captain's protest A document prepared by the captain of a vessel on arriving at port; shows conditions en-countered during voyage, generally for the purpose of relieving ship owner of any loss to cargo and shifting responsibility for reimbursement to the insurance company.
Cargo manifest A manifest that lists only cargo, without freight and charges.
Cargo nature The classification of cargo for special stowage arrangement.
Carnet Any of various customs documents required for crossing some international borders.
Carrier Any individual, company or corporation engaged in transporting goods.
Carrier's lien Right of carrier to retain property as security for charges.
Cellular vessel A vessel designed with internal ribbing to permit the support of stacked containers.
Certificate of origin Document certifying the country of origin of goods which is normally issued or signed by a Chamber of Commerce or Embassy.
Charter party (C/P) A written contract between the owner of a vessel and the person desiring to employ the vessel (charterer); sets forth the terms of the arrangement such as freight rate and ports involved in the trip.
Chartered ship A ship under lease by its owners to others.
Charterer The person to whom is given the use of the whole of the carrying capacity of a ship for the transportation of goods or passenger for a specified time.
Chassis A wheeled flat bed or a trailer constructed to accommodate containers moved over the road.
Chock A piece of wood or other material placed at the side of cargo to prevent it from rolling or moving sideways.
Clean bill of lading A bill of lading which states that the goods have been shipped in apparent good order and condition without any qualification or remarks.
Clearance limits The size beyond which cars or loads cannot use bridges, tunnels, etc.
Closing date Last day on which export cargo can be accepted for a nominated sailing.
Collapsible container Container with hinged or removable parts; its volume can be reduced when transported empty.
Collecting bank A bank that acts as an agent to the seller's bank (the presenting bank). The collecting bank assumes no responsibility for either the documents or the merchandise.
Combined transport Carriage by more than one mode of transport against one contract of carriage.
Combined transport document (CTD) The Combined Transport Operator’s (CTO) bill of lading.
Commercial invoice Represents a complete record of the transaction between exporter and importer with regard to the goods sold. Also reports the content of the shipment and serves as the basis for all other documents about the shipment.
Commodity Article shipped.
Commodity rate Rates of freight applied individually to articles which move regularly and in large quantities.
Common carrier A transportation company operating under a Certificate of Convenience and Necessity; provides service to the general public at published rates.
Common tariff A tariff published by or for two or more transportation lines.
Concealed damage Damage that is not evident from viewing the unopened package.
Concealed loss Contents missing from a package that looks unopened.
Confirmed letter of credit A letter of credit, issued by a foreign bank, whose validity has been confirmed by a domestic bank. An exporter with a confirmed letter of credit is assured of payment even if the foreign buyer or the foreign bank defaults.
Confirming bank The bank that adds its confirmation to another bank's (the issuing bank's) letter of credit and promises to pay the beneficiary upon presentation of documents in compliance with the letter of credit.
Connecting carrier A carrier that has a direct physical connection with another or that forms a link between two or more carriers.
Consignee The merchant named by the consignor (usually a seller) in the transportation documents (such as bill of lading) as the party to whose order a consignment will be delivered at the port of destination. The consignee is considered to be the owner of the consignment for the purpose of filing the customs declaration, and for paying duties and taxes. Formal ownership (title) of the consignment, however, can be transferred from consignor through endorsement, or until the consignee pays for them in full under consignor's straight consignment to the consignee.
Consignor Also spelled as consigner. The merchant who delivers a consignment to a carrier for transporting it to a consignee (usually the buyer) named in the transportation documents. Consignor has the ownership (title) of the goods unless title is transferred through endorsement, or until the consignee pays for them in full under consignor's straight consignment to the consignee.
Consolidated cargo Cargo containing of shipments of two or more shippers, usually shipped by a firm called a consolidator. The consolidator takes advantage of lower F.C.L. rates, and savings are passed on to shippers.
Consolidation The combination of many small shipments into one container.
Consolidator A person or firm performing a consolidation service for others.
Consortium Group of carriers pooling resources in a trade lane to maximize their resources efficiently.
Container A vehicle designed to transport cargo of many types in continuous transportation. It is also referred to an unit of packaging which is smaller in sense in which articles are packed.
Container freight station (CFS, C.F.S.) Consolidation depots where parcels of cargo are grouped and loaded into containers.
Container gross weight Please refer to Gross Weight.
Container number The unique identification of a container.
Container part load A shipment that does not utilize the full volume of a container nor the maximum payload by weight; additional part loads may be added.
Container seal number The number of high security seal provided by OOCL.
Container size The length of a container i.e. 20'', 40'' and 45'' (feet).
Container status The status of a container in term of location, custody and cargo status for cargo tracking use.
Container type The purpose of a container of which the code is to be adhered to ISO standard.
Containerload A load sufficient in size to fill a container either by cubic measurement or by weight.
Containership An ocean vessel specifically designed to carry ocean cargo containers. It is fitted with vertical cells for maximum capacity.
Contract carrier Any person not a common carrier who, under special and individual contracts or agreements, transports passengers or property for compensation.
Copy B/L Duplicate of original bill of lading and is non-negotiable.
Corner castings Fittings on top and bottom of container corner posts; designed for handling and securing a container.
Correction memo A kind of internal document which registers amendment to bill of lading and/or manifest after bill of lading is issued to shipper.
Cost, insurance and freight (C.I.F.)

One of 13 INCOTERMS.

"Cost, Insurance and Freight" means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship's rail in the port of shipment.

Credit agreement Agreement between carrier and shipper for release of cargo with promise to pay ocean freight within specific time.
Cu. Cubic. A unit of volume measurement.
Cubic foot 1,728 cubic inches.
Custom house A country Treasury Department office where duties, etc., on foreign shipments are handled.
Customer’s own transport Customer collects from/deliver to CFS/CY.
Customhouse broker Also known as Custom Broker. A person or firm, licensed to engage in entering and clearing goods through customs and/or the government office (Custom house) where duties and/or tolls are placed on imports or exports. The duties of a broker include preparing the entry blank and filing it; advising the importer on duties to be paid; advancing duties and other costs; and, arranging for delivery to his client, his trucking firm, or other carrier.
Customs bonded warehouse See bonded warehouse.  
Customs invoice A form requiring all data in a commercial invoice along with a certificate of value and/or a certificate of origin. Required in a few countries (usually former British territories) and usually serves as a seller's commercial invoice.
Cut-off time Lastest possible time cargo may be delivered to vessel or designated point.
Cwt. Hundredweight (U.S.A., 100 pounds; United Kingdom, 112 pounds).
D & H Dangerous and Hazardous. Also see Dangerous Goods.
D.W. Dead Weight. The number of tons a ship can transport of cargo, stores and bunker fuel. Also see Deadweight Tonnage.
DAF

One of 13 INCOTERMS.

"Delivered at Frontier" means that the seller delivers when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer on the arriving means of tranport not unloaded, cleared for export but not cleared for import at the named point and place at the frontier, but before the customs border of the adjoining country.

DDC Destination Delivery Charges. A charge assessed by the carrier for handling positioning of a full container.
DDP "Delivery duty paid" means that the seller delivers the goods to the buyer, cleared for import, and not unloaded from any arriving means of tranport at the named place of destination. The seller has to bear all the costs and risks involved in bringing the goods thereto including where applicable, any "duty"(which term includes the responsibility for and the risk of the carrying out of customs formalities and the payment of formalities, customs duties, taxes and other charges) for import in the country of destination. (one of 11 Incoterms)
Dangerous Cargo Please refer to Dangerous Goods.
Dangerous Goods The term used by I.M.C.O. for hazardous materials which are capable of posing a significant risk to health, safety or property while being transported.
Deadweight Tonnage (D/W) The number of total weight tons that a vessel can transport of cargo, stores and bunker fuel.  It is the difference between the number of tons of water a vessel displaces "light" and the number of tons it displaces when submerged to the "load line."
Delivery Order A document authorizing delivery to a nominated party of goods in the care of a third party. Can be issued by a carrier on surrender of a bill of lading and then used by merchant to transfer title by endorsement.
Demurrage (Dem.) Charge raised for detaining FCL container/trailer at a terminal/CY for longer period than provided in a tariff. Also known as Wharf Storage in Australia.
Deployment Disposing vessels to maximize customer satisfaction, utilization, efficiency and revenue-generating potential.
Depot, Container Container freight station or a designated area where empty containers can be picked up or dropped off.
Destination The place where carrier actually turns over cargo to consignee or his agent.
Detention Charges raised for detaining container/trailer at customer’s premises for longer period than provided in Tariff.
Detention Charge See Detention.
Devanning The removal of cargo from a container. Also known as unstuffing, unloading or stripping.
Differential Rate An amount added or deducted from base rate to make a rate to or from some other point or via another route.
Distribution The process of storing, transporting goods between the end of the production line and the final customer. It involves set of activities which demands the goods are delivered in desired quality, quantity, place & time.
Diversion A change made in the route of a shipment in transit. Also see Reconsignment.
Divert The route of a shipment changed in transit from that shown on the original billing.  Used interchangeably with reconsign.
Dock
  • The water alongside a pier or wharf.
  • Loading or unloading platform at an industrial location or carrier terminal.
Documentary Credit The basis of international trade by means of which payment is made against surrender of specified documents.
Door-to-Door Through transportation of a container and its contents from consignor's premises to consignee's premises.
Double-Deck Load A second tier of cargo placed on top of the first tier.
Dray A truck or other equipment designed to haul heavy loads.
Drayage Charge made for local hauling by dray or truck.
Dry Cargo Cargo that does not require temperature control.
Dry Dock An enclosed basin into which a ship is taken for underwater cleaning and repairing. It is fitted with watertight entrance gates which when closed permit the dock to be pumped dry.
Dry-Bulk Container A container constructed to carry grain, powder and other free flowing solids in bulk.
Dunnage (Dge.) Lumber or other material used to brace material in carrier's equipment.
Duty Free Zone See Free Trade Zone
Dwell Time It is expressed in term of no. of day that a container changed from one status to another e.g. from under inbound load (UIL) to empty available (MTA) to under outbound load (UOL). The shortest the dwell time, the more efficient of the container utilization will be.
ECU

European Currency Units.

A financial unit used for EC accounting.

ETA Estimated time of arrival.
ETD Estimated time of departure.
EXW "Ex works"means that the seller delivers when he places the goods at the disposal of the buyer at the seller's premises or another named place (i.e. works, factory, warehouse, etc) not cleared for export and not loaded on any collecting vehicle. (one of 11 Incoterms)
Expiry Date The final date on which the draft and documents must be presented to the negotiating, accepting, paying or issuing bank to effect payment.
Export Shipment of goods to a foreign country.
Export Declaration A government document permitting designated goods to be shipped out of the country.
Express B/L

A special facility granted by carrier under guarantees from shipper/consignee to release cargo to named consignee without presenting original B/L.

Also called "Sea Waybill"

F.A.K. Freight All Kind. System whereby freight is charged per container, irrespective of nature of goods, and not according to a Tariff. (Please also refer to All Commodity Rate)
F.C.L. Full Containerload.
F.E.U. Forty-foot Equivalent Unit. (40'' or 2 Teus) FEU.
F.I.O. Free In and Out.
F.O.B. Stands for Free On Board which is a mercantile expression used in sale contracts denoting that goods have to be delivered by the shippers on board the vessel at a particular place, free of charges.(one of 11 Incoterms)
FAS "Free Alongside Ship" means that the seller delivers when the goods are placed alongside the vessel at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss or damage to the goods from that moment. (one of 11 Incoterms)
FCA "Free Carrier" means that the seller delivers the goods, cleared for export, to the carrier nominated by the buyer at the named place. It should be noted that the chosen place of delivery has an impact on the obligations of loading and unloading the goods at that place. If delivery occurs at the seller's premises, the seller is responsible for loading. If delivery occurs at any other place, the seller is not responsible for unloading.(One of 11 Incoterms)
FCL/FCL See CY/CY.
FCL/LCL See CY/CFS.
FEU Forty-foot Equivalent Unit (40'' or 2 Teus) F.E.U.
FF Freight Forwarder.
Feeder Service Sea transportation as performed by feeder operator.
Feeder Vessel Vessel employed in normally short sea routes to fetch or carry goods and containers to and from ocean going vessels.
Final Destination (FND) End of carrier’s liability where carrier delivers the cargo to consignee.
Flash Point The temperature reaching which for certain inflamable cargo will trigger spontaneous ignition. 
Forwarder

He is neither a consignor nor a carrier.

Known also as Freight Forwarder, Foreign Freight Forwarder. It’s an individual or business that dispatches shipments by land, air, or sea, or it may specialize for exporters and for a fee. Usually it handles all the services in the collection, consolidation, shipping and distribution of goods connected with an export shipment; preparation of documents, booking cargo space, warehouse, pier delivery and export clearance. The firm may also handle banking and insurance services on behalf of a client.

Free Trade Zone Sometimes called "customs free zones" or "duty free zones". It is a generic term referring to special commercial and industrial areas. At which by special customs procedures it allows the importation of non-prohibited foreign goods (including raw materials, components, and finished goods) without the requirement that duties be paid immediately. If the merchandise is later exported, duty free treatment is given to re-exports.
Freight
  • The price paid to the carrier for the transportation of goods or merchandise by sea from one place to another.
  • Freight is also used to denote goods which are in the process of being transported from one place to another.
Fumigation Treatment with a pesticide active ingredient that is a gas under treatment conditions.
G.R.I. General Rate Increase
Gateway Port at which container is discharged from ocean vessel to start the inland or intermodal part of its journey. In TAT, it usually refers to Montreal (for cargo going to the US Midwest).
General Average General average is an unwritten, non-statutory, international maritime law which is universally recognized and applied. It is founded on the principle that vessel and goods are parties to the same venture and share exposure to the same perils, which may require sacrifice or the incurring of extraordinary expense on the part of one for the benefit of the whole venture.
Genset (Generator Set)

A portable power generator, which converts fuel into electrical power by mechanical means, and from which a reefer draws power. A clip-on generator set is mounted to the front of the refrigeration unit.

An underslung generator set is mounted to the chassis upon which the reefer is mounted for handling and transport.

The underslung generator set can be either side-mounted or center-mounted on the chassis.

Gooseneck The front rails of the chassis that raise above the plane of the chassis and engage in the tunnel of a container.
Gross Tonnage Applies to vessels, not to cargo. Determined by dividing by 100 the contents, in cubic feet, of the vessel's closed-in spaces. A vessel ton is 100 cubic feet.
Gross Weight Entire weight of goods, packaging and container,ready for shipment.
Groupage A consolidation service, putting small shipments into containers for shipment.
Hague Rules

1924 International Convention on Carriage of Goods by Sea.

These rules govern liability for loss or damage to goods carried by sea under a bill of lading.

Hague-Visby Rules 1968 Revision of Hague Rules.
Hamburg Rules In March 1978 an international conference in Hamburg adopted a new set of rules (The Hamburg Rules),which radically alter the liability which shipowners have to bear for loss or damage to goods in the courts of those nations where the rules apply.
Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System A multi-purpose international goods-classification for manufacturers. Transporters, exporters, importers, customs officials, statisticians, and others in classifying goods moving in international trade under a single commodity code.
Hatch The opening in the deck of a vessel; gives access to the cargo hold.
Haulage Please refer to drayage.
Haulier Carrier responsible for road transport
Heavy Lift Articles too heavy to be lifted by a ship's tackle.
Heavy-Lift Charge A charge made for lifting articles too heavy to be lifted by a ship's tackle.
High Cube Any container which exceeds 8 feet 6 inches (102 inches) in height, usually 9 feet 6 inches.
House B/L Bill of lading issued by NVOCC (Non-vessel Owning / Operating Common Carrier), either be Forwarders, or Consolidators when they issue B/L instead of FCR (Freight Cargo Receipt), or slot charters, for carriage of goods on vessel which s/he neither owns nor operates. House B/L is commonly not acceptable in the L/C negotiation unless otherwise authorized in the letter of credit (L/C).
Hub A facility in the infrastructure where transport-related services (collection & distribution) and commercial activities are performed, and it focuses on logistics-centre management, facilities management, maintenance and supply chain.
Hull The body of a vessel exclusive of masts, yards, sails, rigging, machinery and equipment.
I.C.C. International Chamber of Commerce
IMO International Maritime Organization.  A forum in which most major maritime nations participate and through which recommendations for the carriage of dangerous goods, bulk commodities and maritime regulations become internationally acceptable.
IATA Cargo Agent It is also a type of freight forwarder who specializes in air cargo. They are registered with the International Air Transport Association (IATA).  They act for airlines which pay them a fee (usually 5%). It is very typical that an IATA Cargo Agent also performs the function of an Air Freight Forwarder in reserve booking for air freight, issue air waybill.
IMDG Code

International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code

The IMO recommendations for the carriage of dangerous goods by sea.

ISPS International Shipping & Port Security.
Import Shipment of goods from a foreign country.
Import License A document required and issued by some national governments authorizing the importation of goods into their individual countries.
Import Permit Usually required for items that might affect the public health, morals, animal life, vegetation, etc. Examples include foodstuffs, feedstuffs, pharmaceuticals (human and veterinary), medical equipment, seeds, plants and various written material (including tapes, cassettes, movies, TV tapes or TV movies). In some countries an import permit is the same as an import license.
In Transit In transit
Inbound

Inward bound

Direction of vessel or cargo going to port of discharge or final destination.

Incoterms Incoterms are a set of uniform rules codifying the interpretation of trade terms defining the rights and obligation of both buyer and seller in an international transaction, thereby enabling anotherwise complex basis for a sale contract to be accomplished in three letters.Incoterms are drafted by the Internaitional Chamber of Commerce.
Inland Clearance Depot A CFS with Customs Clearance Facilities.
Insulated Container A container insulated on the walls, roof, floor and doors, to reduce the effect of external temperatures on the cargo.
Insulated Tank Container The frame of a container constructed to hold one or more thermally insulated tanks for liquids.
Insurance An insurance policy or certificate normally covers the shipments of merchandise from the time they leave the warehouse at the shipping point until they reach the destination point named in the policy or certificate.
Insurance Certificate Where the seller provides ocean marine insurance, it is necessary to furnish insurance certificates, usually in duplicate. The certificates are negotiable documents and must be endorsed before submitting them to the bank. The seller can arrange to obtain an open cargo policy that the freight forwarder maintains.
Insurance With Average-Clause This type of clause covers merchandise if the damage amounts to 3 percent or more of the insured value of the package or cargo. If the vessel burns, sinks, collides, or gets sunk, all losses are fully covered. In marine insurance the word average describes partial damage or partial loss.
Insurance, All-Risk This type of insurance offers the shipper the broadest coverage available, covering against all losses that may occur in transit.
Insurance, General-Average See General Average.
Insurance, Particular-Average A Marine insurance term to refer to partial loss on an individual shipment from one of the perils insured against, regardless of the balance of the cargo (in this way it differs from general-average insurance). Particular-average insurance can usually be obtained, but the loss must be in excess of a certain percentage of the insured value of the shipment, usually 3 to 5 percent, before a claim will be allowed by the company.
Interchange Transfer of a container from one party to another.
Intermodal Used to denote movements of cargo or container between motor, rail or water carriers.
Intermodal Transport Moving ocean freight containers by various transportation modes. The fact that the containers are of the same size and have common handling characteristics permits them to be transferred from truck to railroad to air carrier to ocean carrier.
Issuing Bank The bank that has issued or opened a letter of credit. Also known as Opening Bank.
Knot A unit of speed. The term "knot" means velocity in nautical miles per hour whether of a vessel or current. One nautical mile is roughly equivalent to 1.15 statute miles or 1.85 kilometres.
L.C.L. Less than Container Load. Cargo in quantity less than required for the application for the application of a container load rate.
LCL/FCL See CFS/CY.
LCL/LCL See CFS/CFS.
Letter of Credit
  • Back-to-Back: A secondary letter of credit issued to a beneficiary on the strength of a primary credit;
  • Clean: A letter of credit that requires the beneficiary to present only a draft or a receipt for specified funds before receiving payment;
  • Confirmed: A revolving letter of credit that permits any amount not utilized during any of the specified periods to be carried over and added to the amounts available in subsequent periods;
  • Deferred Payment: A letter of credit issued for the purchase and financing of merchandise, similar to acceptance-type letter of credit, except that it requires presentation of sight drafts payable on an installment basis;
  • Irrevocable: An instrument that, once established, cannot be modified or cancelled without the agreement of all parties concerned; (f) Non-cumulative: A revolving letter of credit that prohibits the amount not used during the specific period to be available in the subsequent periods;
  • Restricted: A condition within the letter of credit which restricts its negotiation to a named bank;
  • Revocable: An instrument that can be modified or cancelled at any moment without notice to and agreement of the beneficiary, but customarily includes a clause in the credit to the effect that any draft negotiated by a bank prior to the receipt of a notice of revocation or amendment will be honored by the issuing bank;
  • Revolving: An irrevocable letter issued for a specific amount; renews itself for the same amount over a given period;
  • Straight: A letter of credit that contains a limited engagement clause addressed to the beneficiary; state that the issuing bank promises to pay upon presentation of the required documents at its counters or the counters of the named bank;
  • Transferable: A letter of credit that allows the beneficiary to transfer in whole or in part any amount of the credit to one or more third parties provided that the aggregate of such transfers does not exceed the amount of the credit.
  • Unconfirmed: A letter of credit forwarded to the beneficiary by the advising bank without engagement on the part of the advising bank.
Letter of Indemnity Guarantee from shipper or consignee to indemnity carrier for costs and/or loss, if any, in order to obtain favorable action by carrier, e.g. sometimes, it is used to allow consignee to take delivery of goods without surrendering B/L which has been delayed
Lien A legal claim upon goods for the satisfaction of some debt or duty.
Lift-On/Lift-Off (LO-LO) A container ship onto which and from which containersare lifted by crane.
Lighter An open or covered barge towed by a tugboat and used mainly in harbors and inland waterways.
Lighterage Refers to the carriage of goods by lighter and the charge assessed therefore.
Line-haul Transportation from one city to another as differentiated from local switching service.
Liner Vessel plying a regular trade/defined route against a published sailing schedule.
Liner Terms

They define the condition / responsibility of cost under which a carrier has had at port of loading to port of discharge. As such they also determine the freight / charges payable for loading & discharging the cargo from the vessel in their quotation, according to the customs of the port and it is not internationally codified.     

Carrier cost responsibility under respective Liner Terms:          
 
  • Liner In Liner Out ( CY to CY ) - Carrier bears the costs for loading at loading port, sea voyage up to cargo discharged at discharging port.
  • Liner In Hook Out ( CY to Hook) - Carrier bears the costs for loading at loading port, sea voyage up to cargo alongside cargo hook at discharging port. 
  • Hook In Liner Out ( Hook to CY) - Carrier bears the costs for cargo alongside cargo hook at loading port, sea voyage up to cargo discharged at discharging port.
  • Liner In Free Out (CY to Free Out, LIFO) - Carrier bears the costs for loading at loading port, sea voyage and exclude costs for cargo at discharging port. 
  • Free In Liner Out (Free in to CY, FILO) - Carrier bears the costs for sea voyage and costs for cargo discharged at discharging port.
  • Hook to Hook - Carrier bears the costs for sea voyage and costs for cargo alongside at loading port & at discharging port.
  • Hook to Free Out - Carrier bears the costs for cargo alongside cargo hook at loading port, sea voyage and exclude cost at discharging port.
  • Free In to Hook - Carrier bears the costs for sea voyage and costs for cargo alongside cargo hook at discharging port. 
  • Free In Free Out (FIFO) - Carrier bears the costs for sea voyage and exclude costs at loading port & discharging port.  
Liter 1.06 liquid quarts.
Lloyds' Registry An organization maintained for the surveying and classing of ships so that insurance underwriters and others may know the quality and condition of the vessels offered for insurance or employment.
Lo/Lo

Lift On, Lift Off.

Surcharge for handing equipment over to merchant haulier in UK.

Load Factor Percent of loaded containers against total capacity of vessel or allocation.
Loadwire Special service as provided normally to consignee to advise them shipment information certain days after vessel sailing and usually well in advance before vessel arriving discharging end.
Locking Bar Device that secures container doors at top and bottom.
Logistics The management of moving or stationary inventory.
Long Ton 2,240 pounds. (l.t., l.tn.)
Longshoreman Individual employed locally in a port to load and unload ships.
Loose Without packing.
Low-Bed A trailer or semi-trailer with no sides and with the floor of the unit close to the ground.
M/V Motor Vessel
MQC

Minimum Quantity Commitment.

Volume of cargo that a customer commits to ship over the duration of their contract (in TEU)

MT
  • Metric Ton or Cubic meter
  • Empty container
  • Multimodal Transport.
Malpractice A carrier giving a customer special preference to attract cargo. This can take the form of a money refund (rebate); using lower figures that actual for the assessment of freight charges (undercubing); misdeclaration of the commodity shipped to allow the assessment of a lower tariff rate; waiving published tariff charges for demurrage, CFS handling or equalization; providing specialized equipment disproportionately to a shipper to the detriment of other shippers, etc.
Manifest Document that lists in detail all the bills of lading issued by a vessel or its agent or master, i.e., a detailed summary of the total cargo of a vessel. Used principally for customs purposes. It is also called summary of Bills of lading.
Manifest, Traveling A manifest of all cargoes aboard a conveyance, vessel, truck or rail, that lists cargoes to be discharged at each port of call. The manifest must be aboard at the vessel's first port of call. Corrections must be made at the first port regardless of the destination of the cargo. Manifest is certified by customs and travels with the vessel through the remainder of its ports of call in the same country.
Maritime Business pertaining to commerce or navigation transacted upon the sea or in seaports in such matters as the court of admiralty has jurisdiction over.
Marks & Nos. Marks & Numbers placed on packages for export for identification purposes; generally a triangle, square, circle, diamond, or cross with letters and/or numbers and port discharge.
Master Bill of Ladings The B/L issue by Vessel Owning / Operating Common Carrier (VOCC) to the Non-vessel Owning / Operating Common Carrier (NVOCC). It contras with House B/L which an NVOCC issues to its shippers for carriage of goods on vessel which the NVOCC neither owns nor operates, or just is slot charterer.
Maximum Payload Maximum cargo that can be loaded into a container either by weight or volume.
Maximum Rate The highest freight rate permitted by a regulatory body to apply between points.
Measurement Ton

1 cubic meter.

One of the alternative bases of Freight Tariff.

Memo B/L An internal B/L created for certain purposes, e.g. memo B/L created to replace original B/L used in case of spliting B/L at request of consignee.
Minimum Charge The lowest charge that can be assessed to transport a shipment.
Modified Atmosphere (MA) An atmosphere in which oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen concentrations are different from those in air but are not precisely regulated.
Multimodal Transport

See Combined Transport.

A preferred term by UNCTAD  for Combined Transport.

N.O.I.B.N. Not otherwise indexed by name.
N.O.S. Not otherwise specified.
NVOCC See Non-vessel Owning/Operating Common Carrier
Negotiable B/L Original bill of lading endorsed by shipper that is used for negotiating with banks.
Negotiating Bank A bank named in the credit; examines the documents and certifies to the issuing bank that the terms are complied with.
Net Tonnage A vessel's gross tonnage minus deductions of space occupied by accommodations for crew, by machinery, for navigation, by the engine room and fuel. A vessel's net tonnage expresses the space available for passengers and cargo.
Net Weight Weight of the goods alone without any immediate wrappings, e.g., the weight of the contents of a tin can without the weight of the can. Also called actual net Weight.
Neutral Body Operates within the framework of a rate conference. Established by the member carriers to act as a self-policing force to ferret out malpractices and other tariff violations. The neutral body has authority to scrutinize all documents kept by the carriers and the carriers' personnel. Has right of entry to all areas of the carriers's facilities, including desks, briefcases, etc. Violations found are reported to the membership and significant penalties are assessed. Repeated offences are subject to escalating penalties. Revenue from penalties are used to support the cost of the neutral body's activity.
Non-negotiable B/L Copy of original bill of lading which cannot be negotiated with bank.
Non-vessel Owning / Operating Common Carrier (N.V.O.C.C.)

(a) A cargo consolidator of small shipments in ocean trade, generally soliciting business and arranging for or performing containerization functions at the port. (b) A carrier issuing Bs/L for carriage of goods on vessel which he neither owns nor operates.

Non-Vessel Operating Common Carrier (NVOCC) - In the United States, it is a term for a cargo consolidator of shipments who is licensed by FMC in ocean trade, generally arranging for or performing consolidation and containerization functions. In trade lanes that do not include the U.S.A., NVOCC operate under different rules and governmental licensing may not be a requirement.

OBL See Original Bill of lading or O.B.L.
Ocean Bill of Lading (Ocean B/L) Document indicating that the exporter will consign a shipment to an international carrier for transportation to a specified foreign market. Unlike an inland B/L, the ocean B/L also serves as a collection document. if it is a Straight B/L the foreign buyer can obtain the shipment from the carrier by simply showing proof of identity. If a negotiable B/L is used, the buyer must first pay for the goods, post a bond or meet other conditions agreeable to the seller.
Ocean Freight See Freight.
On Board Means that cargo has been loaded on board a combined transport mode of conveyance. Used to satisfy the requirements of a letter of credit, in the absence of an express requirement to the contrary.
On Board B/L A B/L in which a carrier acknowledges that goods have been placed on board a certain vessel.
On Deck A special stowage instruction to confine the cargo stowage must be on deck rather than under deck.
Open-Top Container A container fitted with a solid removable roof or with a tarpaulin roof that can be loaded or unloaded from the top.
Origin Location where shipment begins its movement at cargo's expense.
Original Bill of Lading (O.B.L.) A document which requires proper signatures for consummating carriage of contract.
Outbound

Outward bound.

Direction of vessel or cargo going out from port of loading or point/place of receipt.

Overage An excess of quantity billed.
Overheight Cargo Cargo stowed in an open-top container; projects above the uppermost level of the roof struts.
Overland Common Point (O.C.P.) A term stated on the bills of lading offering lower shipping rates to importers east of the Rockies provided merchandise from the Far East comes in through the West Coast ports.
Overwidth A container with goods protruding beyond the sides of the container/flat rack onto which they are packed.
P.& I. Protection and Indemnity, an insurance term.
P.O.D. Port of Discharge where cargo is discharged from vessel. In case of transshipment is needed, there can be a number of POD during the course of shipment until it reaches the final POD.
P.O.L. Port of Loading where loading to vessel takes place
P.O.R. Point or Place of Receipt.
PTI (Pre-trip Inspection) A procedure of checking the ability of a reefer to maintain temperature control. The inspection normally focuses on the operation of the refrigeration and heating equipment, as well as the physical condition of the refrigeration plant and the insulated container shell. Such inspections are normally performed prior to each loading of a reefer.
Pallet A platform (usually two-deck), with or without sides, on which a number of packages or pieces may be loaded to facilitate handling by a lift truck.
Partial Shipments Under letters of credit, one or more shipments are allowed by the phrase"partial shipments permitted." In bulk shipments a tolerance of 3 percent is allowed.
Payable Elsewhere Special service to shipper or consignee to receive freight and charges at location and from designated party as specified by shipper or consignee i.e. freight and charges are not received at loading end (for Prepaid shipment) and discharging end (for Collect shipment).
Payload The revenue-producing part of the cargo.
Per Diem A charge made by one transportation line against another for the use of its equipment. The charge is based on a fixed rate per day.
Perils of the Sea Those causes of loss for which the carrier is not legally liable. The elemental risks of ocean transport.
Perishable Cargo Cargo subject to decay or deterioration.
Pier The structure to which a vessel is secured for the purpose of loading and unloading cargo.
Pier-to-House (P/H) See CFS/CY.
Pier-to-Pier (P/P) See CFS/CFS.
Piggyback The transportation of highway trailers or demountable trailer bodies on specially equipped railcars.
Pilferage The act of stealing cargo.
Pilot A person whose office or occupation is to steer ships, particularly along a coast or into and out of a harbor.
Place of Delivery See Final Destination.
Place of Receipt Location where cargo enters the care and custody of carrier.
Pool (Container) A common supply of containers available to the shippers.
Port
  • Harbor with piers or docks;
  • Left side of a ship when facing the bow;
  • Opening in a ship's side for handling freight.
Port of Call Port where a steamer discharges or receives traffic.
Port of Discharge Port where cargo is unloaded from vessel.
Port of Entry Port where cargo actually enters a country where the cargo is not part of its commerce.
Port of Loading (POL) Port where cargo is loaded to vessel.
Port of arrival Location where imported merchandise is off loaded from the importing aircraft or vessel.
Power of Attorney Authority given by the first party to the second party to act for the first party. For example, when carriers give power of attorney to an agent to publish tariffs for those carriers.
Pratique Certificate
  • (a) Permission or license granted by the port medical authorities to a vessel upon arrival from a foreign port after quarantine inspection, to communicate with shore.
  • A certificate issued in British ports by the medical officer of health upon declaration made by the captain or the ship’s doctor on arrival quarantine station that no member of the crew or passenger is suffering from any contagious disease. Also called certificate of health. Without this document the vessel cannot report at the customs house.
Pre-cooling A process employed in the shipment of citrus fruits and other perishable commodities. The fruit is packed and placed in a cold room from which the heat is gradually extracted. The boxes of fruit are packed in containers that have been thoroughly cooled and transported through to destination without opening the doors.
Prepaid (Ppd.) One of the payment status where freight and charges are required to be paid by shipper before original bill of lading is released to them except for shipment under Sea Waybill (or Express BL) as no original bill of lading is required or for shipment under credit arrangement.
Pro Rata In proportion.
Protest
  • A legal means of proving presentation and default of a negotiable instrument, as well as providing notice to interested parties that the instrument was not paid.
  • A declaration made by the master of a vessel before a notary public in the United States and Great Britain or a tribunal of commerce on the European Continent, or before the consul of the country from which the vessel hails if in a foreign port, on arrival in port, when, through stress of weather, it has not been practicable to adopt ordinary precaution in the matter of ventilation for perishable cargoes; when the condition of the cargo or any part thereof at the time of shipment is such as to lead to the belief that damage or some further damage has occurred during the voyage; when any serious breach of a charter party by the charterer in a foreign port happens; when a vessel experiences bad weather while at sea and when the master has reason to believe that the cargo is damaged or part of the deck load lost overboard. Copies of the protest are frequently demanded underwriter in the event of a claim. Protest are received as evidence in tribunal on the Continent but they cannot be made use of as evidence in courts of law in the United Kingdom in favor of the party making the protest except by the consent of both parties concerned.
Quarantine The period during which a vessel is detained in isolation until free from any contagious disease among the passengers or crew. The word is now applied to the sanitary regulations which are the modern substitute for quarantine. During the quarantine period, the Q flag is hoisted.
Quay rent Cost levied by a terminal for laden container sotrage. Can either be billed to the carrier as its cusotmer or direct to the shpper.
Quota The quantity of goods that may be imported without restriction or additional duties or taxes.
Railhead Rail termianl where containers are either loaded or discahrged from train. (A railhead is a CY)
Ramp Rail terminal where containers are either loaded or disharged from a train (A rail Ramp is a CY)
Receipt for shipment B/L A term used in contradistinction to shipped bill of lading, which is the standard document. Some bankers object to to such bill of lading on the ground that the security they offer is imperfect. This kind of bill of lading is normally issued to acknowledge receipt of shipment before cargo loading or before official original bill of lading is issued. Nowadays, not many shippers ask for this kind of bill of lading.
Reefer

In the industry, it is the generic name for a temperature controlled container. The containers, which are insulated, are specially designed to allow temperature controlled air circulated within the container. A refrigeration plant is built into the rear of the container. 

- See also Genset.

 

- See also PTI.

 

Refrigerant A compound capable of absorbing large quantities of heat before it changes from a liquid to a gas.
Relay To transfer goods from one ship to another of the same ownership.
Release note Receipt signed by customer acknowledging delivery of goods.
Respiration The process by which nutrients are metabolized to provide energy needed for cellular activity.
Return air Air warmed by the container cargo delivered to the evaporator. The temperature of return air often controls the operation of the refrigeration unit.
Revenue ton (R/T) The greater weight or measurement of goods where 1 ton is either 1000 kilos or 1 cubic metre (for metric system). Also known as bill of lading ton or freight ton. It is used to calculate freight charge.
Roll-On/Roll-Off (Ro/Ro) A feature designed in a specially constructed vessel in both the loading and discharging ports.
Route (Rte.) The manner in which a shipment moves, i.e., the carriers handling it and the points via which they handle it.
SED

Standard Export Declaration.

Legal document that shippers or freight forwarder have to complete prior to exxport from USA.

SI

Shipping Instruction.

See B/L Master.

SSN

Standard Shipping Note.

Paperwork completed by a UK shipper which accompanies the container on its journey to the port of exit. This is so that receiving authorities liket the carrier & port receive clear and precise information on how the goods should be handled.

STC Said to Contain. A standard clause used to protect carrier for cargo stuffed by shipper or its agents.
Salvage loss A loss which it is presumed would, but for certain services rendered, have become a total loss. The charges incurred are "salvage charges". The property salved is the "salvage". When referring to goods a salvage loss is one resulting from shipwreck or from a situation where, by the peril of the sea, the vessel is prevented from proceeding on her voayge and the cargo, or the part that is saved is obliged to be sold at a place short of the port of destination. The term is used in marine insurance when at a point short of destination, it can be shown that it would cost more to forward damaged goods to their destination than the goods would realized on the spot. The underwriters usually pay the difference between the total insured value and the net proceeds of the goods, such a settlement being known as a "salvage loss".
Sea waybill See refer "Express B/L"
Seal (Container) Metal strip and lead fastener used for locking freight car or truck doors. Seals are numbered for record purposes.
Service contract As provided in the Shipping Act of 1984, a contract between a shipper (or a shippers' association) and an ocean common carrier (or conference) in which the shipper makes a commitment to provide a certain minimum quantity of cargo or freight revenue over a fixed time period, and the ocean common carrier or conference commits to a certain rate or rate schedule as well as a defined service level (such as assured space, transit time, port rotation or similar service features). The contract may also specify provisions in the event of nonperformance on the part of either party.
Ship chandler An individual or company selling equipment and supplies for ships.
Ship owner One of the persons in whom is vested the title of property of a ship or ships.
Shipped bill of lading A bill of lading issued only after the goods have actually been shipped on board the vessel, as distinguished from the received for shipment bill of lading. Also see on board bill of lading.
Shipped on board Endorsement on a bill of lading confirming loading of goods on vessel.
Shipper The person for whom the owners of a ship agree to carry goods to a specified destination and at a specified price.  The merchant who can be consignor, exporter, or seller (who may be the same or different parties) named in the shipping documents as the party responsible for initiating a shipment, and who may also bear the freight cost.'
Shipper owned container The container used for cargo shipment is owned by shipper
Shipper's Export Declaration A custom house form filled by the shipper of goods. to foreign countries. Also called shipper’s manifest.It mentions the marks, numbers, quantity, description an value of the goods at time and place of export. There is a different definition in USA as "The shipper's export declaration (SEDs) forms 7525-V and 7525-V-Alternate (Intermodal) and the shipper's export declaration for In-Transit Goods, Form 7513, are JOINT-BUREAU OF THE CENSUS- INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION DOCUMENTS used for compiling the offical U.S. export statistics and administering the requirements of the Export Administrative Act.
Shipper's Load & Count Shipments loaded and sealed by shippers and not checked or verified by the carriers.
Shipping order Usually for same set of Shipping Order, there are a number of copies with same form and contents but with different name such as the 1st copy is called Shipping Order and remainders are called Shipping Order Copy or Dock Receipt for different purposes such as space control, surveyor and sworn measurer, documentation .After EDI is so popular nowadays and used by both shipper and Customs, hardcopy Shipping Order is no longer widely used now.
Shipping permit Issued by a shipping or carrier company; authorizes the receiving clerk at pier, dock, warehouse, airport or on board to receive a stipulated amount of goods or materials from a specified firm.
Short Term Lease Short term lease refers to Master lease (with or without free-day), direct interchange and sublease from TGA/VSAO/Canmar partner as well as Free-use from any other logistic companies.
Shut-out Goods not carried on intended vessel.
Slot Space on board a vessel occupied by a container.
Spreader A piece of equipment designed to lift containers by their corner castings.
Stability The force that holds a vessel upright or returns it to upright if keeled over. Weights on the lower hold increase stability. A vessel is stiff if it has high stability, tender if it has low stability.
Stevedore Terminal operator who is designated to facilitate the operation of loading and discharging vessels and various terminal activities.
Storage A charge made on property stored.
Store-Door Delivery (STOR/DOR) Delivery of goods to consignee's place of business or warehouse by motor vehicle. Refers to a complete package of delivery services performed by a carrier from origin to final consumption point, whether that be a retail, wholesale or other final distribution facility. Abbreviated in CCMS as SDD.
Store-Door PickUp Picking up an empty container from a carrier, delivering it to a merchant and returning the laden container; the portion of store-door pick up performed by the carrier's trucker.
Stowage A marine term referring to loading freight into ships' holds.
Straddle Carrier Mobile truck equipment with the capacity for lifting a container within its own framework.
Straight Bill of Lading A term for a non negotiable bill of lading. In the U.S. the Pomerene Act governs its operation.
Stripping The unloading of a container.
Stuffing The loading of a container.
Supply Chain Management The delivery of enhanced customer and economic value through synchronized management of the flow of physical goods, services and associated information from sourcing through consumption. The management of the process and activities to provide the flow of products, services and information to customers.
Surcharge An extra or additional charge.
T.E.U. Twenty-foot Equivalent Unit. ( 20'') TEU.
T.I.R. Trailer Interchange Receipt. See Equipment Interchange Receipt.
TDR Terminal departure report
TEU Twenty-foot Equivalent Unit (20") T.E.U.
THC Terminal Handling Charge. A charge assessed by the terminal for handling FCLs at ocean terminals.
TOS Terms of Sale.
Tank Container A specially constructed container for transporting liquids and gases in bulk.
Tare Weight The weight of packing material or, in carload shipments, the weight of the empty freight car.
Tariff (Trf.) A publication setting forth the charges, rates and rules of transportation companies.
Tender The offer of goods for transportation or the offer to place cars for loading or unloading.
Terminal An assigned area in which containers are prepared for loading into a vessel or are stacked immediately after discharge from the vessel.
Through Rate The total rate from the point of origin to final destination.
Time Charter A charter party hiring a vessel for a specified period of time or a particular voyage, in which the shipowner provides the vessel and crew while the charterer supplies the cargo. Also known as non-demise charter.
Tonnage Generally refers to freight handled.
Towage The charge made for towing a vessel.
Tramp A freighter vessel that does not run in any regular line but takes cargo wherever the shippers desire.
Tranship To transfer goods from one transportation line to another, or from one ship to another.
Transit Cargo Goods onboard which upon their arrival at a certain port are not to be discharged at that port.
Transit Port A port where goods received are merely en route and from which they have to be transferred and dispatched to their ultimate destination by coasters, barge and so on. Also called transshipment port.
Turnaround In water transportation, the time it takes between the arrival of a vessel and its departure.
Twist Locks A set of four twistable bayonet-type shear keys used as part of a spreader to pick up a container or as part of a chassis to secure the containers.
Two-Way Pallet A pallet so designed that the forks of a forklift truck can be inserted from two sides only.
UN United Nations.
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
UNCTAD MMO UNCTAD Multi Modal Transport Convention.
USDA United States Department of Agriculture.
Unit Load Packages loaded on a pallet in a crate or any other way that enables them to be handled at one time as a unit.
Ventilated Container A container designed with openings in the side and/or end walls to permit the ingress of outside air when the doors are closed.
Vessel's Manifest Statement of a vessel's cargo (revenue, consignee, marks, etc.).
Vol. Volume.
Voyage Number The numeric identification of a round trip sailing of a vessel on a fixed trade lane.
Warehouse A place for the reception and storage of goods.
Waybill (WB) A document prepared by a transportation line at the point of a shipment; shows the point of the origin, destination, route, consignor, consignee, description of shipment and amount charged for the transportation service. A waybill is forwarded with the shipment or sent by mail to the agent at the transfer point or waybill destination. Abbreviation is WB. Unlike a bill of lading, a waybill is not a document of title.
Weight Cargo A cargo on which the transportation charge is assessed on the basis of weight.
Wharfage (Whfge.) Charge assessed by a pier or dock owner against freight handled over the pier or dock or against a steamship company using the pier or dock.